Thursday, March 19, 2020
Doctor Essays Doctor Essay Doctor Essay Antonym Persuasive Devices Friend, Romans, Countrymen Lend me your ears. (Act 3 seen 2) Antonym says this to try to get the people to listen to him while he was giving his funeral speech. One thing the people did not know was that his speech was to make them do bad things like riot. Throughout Antonyms funeral speech he used many persuasive devices to get people to listen to him some was where pathos, plain folks, and name calling to get people to believe him. In Antonyms speech there is a lot of emotion which is pathos. He showed emotion to get people to believe that he wept for Caesar death. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, I must pause till it comes back to me. (Act 3 seen 2) Antonym says this to make the people feel sad because Antonym is crying. By Antonym crying it made the people give in even more to him and believe him and that Brutes was wrong. Another was Antonym persuaded the people to believe him is plain folks. A plain folk is where someone upper class is telling the lower class that they are Just like hem. But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man that love my friends; Anthony said. He said this to make them believe he was Just like them and for them to think that he was their friend and they believed him. This is where they believed everything and was making them angry. The last persuasive device is name calling. Name calling is when someone is saying mean or bad things about another person or product. l fear I wrong the honorable men whose daggers have stabbed Caesar; I do fear it. Throughout Antonyms speech he turns the word honorable around as he said it sarcastically. He was really meaning butchers and traitors. The crowd of people gave into Antonym sarcasm and became irate with the conspirators because they then thought they were murderers. Antonym was very happy with his speech. He got exactly what he wanted. He wanted bad things to happen to the conspirators so he knew he could get the people angry enough to do the dirty work for him. Since the people lent their ears to Antonym, by the end of this speech there was a huge riot.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Funny Quotes About Men If youre in a relationship, have been in a relationship but arent any more or hope someday to be in one, this list is for you. Men have their share of quirks and idiosyncrasies; which generally befuddle women. But only a man can understand what goes on in the mind of a man. Here are some rib-tickling funny quotes about men from the inimitable Mae West and Oscar Wilde and a few others. Oscar Wilde How can a woman be expected to be happy with a man who insists on treating her as if she were a perfectly normal human being? Young men want to be faithful, and are not; old men want to be faithless, and cannot. Between men andÃ women,Ã there is no friendship possible. There is passion, enmity, worship, love, but no friendship. Women are never disarmed by compliments; men always are. Elayne Boosler When women are depressed, they eat or go shopping. Men invade another country. Its a whole different way of thinking. Mae West Men are all alike except the one youve met whos different. Men are easy to get but hard to keep. Its not the men in my life, its the life in my men. Give a man a free hand and hell run it all over you. Every man I meet wants to protect me. I cant figure out what from. All discarded lovers should be given a second chance, but with somebody else. William Shakespeare Well, I will find you 20 lascivious turtles ere one chaste man. Sigh no more, ladies, sigh no more, Men were deceivers ever, One foot in sea and one on shore, To one thing constant never. Mignon McLaughlin Few women care what a man looks like, and a good thing too. Bruce Willis On the one hand, well never experience childbirth. On the other hand, we can open all our own jars. Jeanne-Marie Roland The more I see of men, the more I admire dogs. Will Rogers Every time a woman leaves off something she looks better, but every time a man leaves off something he looks worse. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man has will, but woman has her way. Benjamin Frankin If Jacks in love, hes no judge of Jills beauty. Lucille Ball A man who correctly guesses a womans age may be smart, but hes not very bright. Martha Gellhorn I know enough to know that no woman should ever marry a man who hated his mother.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Law of Contract II - Essay Example Whether CBL can claim for breach of contract against Ricky for non Ã¢â¬â payment of money for the work completed. Rule of Law A false statement of fact, during the formation of a contract, by one of the parties to the contract, constitutes misrepresentation. As per the provisions of the Misrepresentation Act 1967, the representor is liable for fraudulent misrepresentation, despite his not having made the statement fraudulently.1 The party to the contract that undergoes loss due to this misrepresentation can either revoke the contract or claim damages.2 Application RickyÃ¢â¬â¢s contract with CBL involves the construction of a new conservatory. Lawretta, a director of CBL, assures him that they are the best in constructing conservatories and that he was at liberty to make relevant enquiries. Ricky believes her statement and agrees upon a cost of ?20,000 for constructing the conservatory. After the completion of half the work Ricky discovers that CBL had never constructed conservat ories. In addition, he comes to know that some of CBLÃ¢â¬â¢s former customers are claiming damages for defective and poor workmanship. Ricky refuses to pay CBL for the work completed and the latter decides to claim for breach of contract. ... ordships ruled that in such cases, it was sufficient if the plaintiff could establish that the defendant knew or was convinced that his statement was not factual.3 In Redgrave v Hurd, the plaintiff had made a statement regarding his firmÃ¢â¬â¢s income, while attempting to induce the defendant to become a partner, in his business. Hurd discovered that the statement was wrong and sought to rescind the contract. The lower court ruled in RedgraveÃ¢â¬â¢s favour, but the appellate court set aside this decision and held that RedgraveÃ¢â¬â¢s statement constituted innocent misrepresentation. Thereafter, it upheld the revocation of the contract by Hurd.4 A plaintiff is not liable for breach of contract if he had been unaware of the misrepresentation, at the time of the contract. This was the ruling in Horsfall v Thomas.5 Moreover, in Smith v Chadwick, the court ruled that there was no liability if the plaintiff had been aware of the misrepresentation and it was established that this know ledge could not have influenced his judgement.6 Finally, it was held in Peekay Internmark Ltd v Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd that there had to be actual knowledge of the misrepresentation and that constructive knowledge was insufficient.7 It is essential for some relationship to exist between the misrepresentation and the inducement for the claimant to form the contract. Thus, in Attwood v Small, the defendant had relied upon his agentsÃ¢â¬â¢ report regarding the productivity of the mines and steelworks offered to him by the plaintiff.8 As he had not relied on the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, he was not permitted to rescind the contract. Conclusion The fraudulent misrepresentation made by CBL induced Ricky to hire the former to construct a conservatory. CBL had misrepresented to Ricky about its
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The IMFs Approach to Economic Stabilization - Essay Example In order to truly diagnose the situation, and properly understand the IMF and its current position in the world, we must ask the following questions: Founded in the turbulent era of the 1940s to stabilize the world economy, and based in Washington, D.C., the IMF (International Monetary Fund) is "an organization of 184 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial security, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty." ("IMF", 2006). The IMF's original purpose was "to establish a code of conduct that would enhance economic cooperation, and avoid the 'beggar-thy-neighbor' policies that led to the economic turbulence of the thirties." (Babb & Buira, 2005). In short, the IMF is a multilateral institution that lends money to governments in order to stabilize currencies and maintain order in international markets. Since the IMF was established its purposes have remained unchanged, but its surveillance, financial assistance and technical assistance operations have developed regularly in order to "meet the changing needs of its member countries i n an evolving world economy." ("IMF", 2006). The IMF "plays a key role in defining how much governments can spendThe Fund's view of what defines the macro economic stability of a country is the authoritative one for all development partners." ("Eurodad", 2003). What are the Main Components of the IMF's Approach to Economic Stabilization Particularly so in recent years, the IMF's quantitative approach to economic stabilization "has been the subject of considerable controversy." ("Survey", 1999). Considered as "the creator of the 'moral hazard'," (Monsod, 1998), the IMF consists of many programs which are often characterized as being "unnecessarily damaging to growth, harmful to the poor, unduly inflexible and unresponsive to the differing needs and circumstances of member countries, and based on rigid application of outmoded and discredited economic principles." (Mussa & Savastano, 1999). In order to understand the IMF's approach to economic stabilization and how it functions in all aspects, one must first understand the process of an IMF supported program: typically an IMF supported program is not permanent or 'set in stone' at the beginning of operations, but rather begins with the seemingly simple a request of a member. It is only then that the IMF staff prepares a blueprint of a program that is used for the actual basis of negotiations. After this, when an agreement is reached, the arrangement is cleared by IMF management and then approved by the IMF Executive Board. Disbursements proceed immediately after this if all performance
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Globalisation Influencing The Development Of International Relations Theory Politics Essay Globalisation is a relatively new, unpredictable process in which raises fundamental issues within international relations. Globalisation is a contested notion and under much controversy. Jeff Haynes (2003) claims there is precious little agreement about what globalisation really means.Ã Ã This suggests that globalisation is constantly debated and ever changing. Shalmali Guttal (2007) argues globalisation, shaped the world over the past 50-odd years.Ã Ã The international system has under gone profound changes and has witnessed the end of the war of the ideologies, liberalism and communism. This essay will explain how economic, cultural, social and political changes within globalism have influenced the development of international relations theory with reference to contemporary examples. The definition of globalisation is fundamental in order to understand how it has influenced the development of international relations theory. However it is difficult to come to a singular definition as globalisation is a subject which is underpinned by controversy. It has been described that, globalisation is a historical process Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ that links distant communities and expands the reach of power politics across regions and continentsÃ Ã , dating as far back as the 19th century with the industrial revolution. Essentially globalisation has in essence, condensed the world which has led to an integrated economy and has diminished geo-political boundaries. It is argued that globalisation is related to neo-liberalism and capitalism which has generated a debate as to whether it promotes wealth or greed as Marxists suggest. On one hand it is said to promote a healthy, booming economy whilst others suggest that the western liberalised countries get richer whilst the third w orld countries continue to suffer, not capable of delivering on its promises of economic well-being and progress for all.Ã Ã This becomes apparent when states such as the US and Cambodia are compared. For example, GNP Per Capita in 2002 for Cambodia was $1970 whereas the US was $35244. This highlights the North; south divide caused by globalisation. Globalisation is a multi-dimensional subject which considers cultural, social, economic and political changes. Furthermore according to the United Nations, Extreme poverty remains a daily reality for more than 1 billion people who subsist on less than $1 a day. More than 800 million people have too little to eat to meet their daily energy needs.Ã Ã This would argue that globalisation has not helped third world and less developed countries as neo-realism suggested. Modernisation is paramount to globalisation. With new technology, such as the internet, emails, and mobile devices, and with new means of transportation such as air travel, technologies allow the transfer of goods, services and information almost anywhere quickly and efficiently.Ã Ã The theory of interconnectedness within the globe has evolved, and with it the added convenience of businesses being able to operate transnationally in order to expand and cut costs. This highlights that international relations theory needs to accommodate to this change as it now involved more people across wider areas. State centric theories have become less relevant with the emergence of globalisation. Non-governmental organisations such as the European Union and Transnational corporations such as Coca cola or NestlÃ © are operating with huge turnovers, By the mid-1990s, 51 of the worlds top 100 entities were transnational companiesÃ Ã . They are able to influence policy due to the substa ntial profits which would benefit the economy of states they operate in however this is detrimental to the population working within the companies. This would suggest that state centric theories have become less significant with the development of international relations theory. Realism argues the importance of states-as-actors however, states have lost sovereign control over non-state actors who are able to expand and operate within different countries. This contradicts theories such as realism threatened to put sovereignty at bay,Ã Ã Vernon (1971) as cited by Jones (2008) in which sovereignty stands at the foundations of the state centric theories. The idea of the nation state is argued to be out-dated, for example with the development of transnational organisations such as the United Nations. This shows that the state has little power within the international system, and would argue against theories such as constructivism having an influence in international relations theo ry. Therefore globalisation reduces states ability to make domestic decisions. Balance of power has also been influenced by globalisation. The end of the cold war symbolised the end of the bi-polar regime and a greater distribution of world power. Another state centric theory constructivism argues anarchy is what states make of it. This idea is dismissed by neo realists, there may be peace and quiet in the international system. But in anarchy, states are always seeking security; moves in that direction can be misread by other states; that is what the security dilemma is all about.Ã Ã Neo realists argue that you cannot predict what another states action may be; therefore the idea of security within the state is questioned within constructivism. However on the other hand, terrorism is reinforcing state centric theories such as realism, for example, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦a struggle for power among self-interested states and is generally pessimistic about the prospects for eliminating conflict and war (Walt, 1998) Despite terrorists being non-state actors, terrorism reflects the revivification of the tradition of international relations theory. For example during the 1980s Libya sponsored terrorist acts, The first and most crucial thing to understand is this. There is no international terrorism without the support of sovereign states.Ã Ã Ã Globalisation has enhanced the technical capabilities and global grasp of terrorism which had enabled them to work through a global network. This has been helped with the introduction of new technology in which has condensed the globe, making it easier for terrorist groups to operate. Realism is also concerned with primarily states interest. National security issues are the most importan t, and with such events as 9/11 in America and 7/7 in Britain it shows that even the stronger powers are to some extent under constant threat from terrorism. The change in international relations theory has seen the spread of Liberalism and western values across the globe. Technology has been used as a tool to promote these western values; for example through means of the media and the internet. Widespread political changes have resulted from the process of Globalisation. For example democracy has been spreading since the mid-1970s which has seen dictatorships across Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America fall to democracy. A domino like effect has triggered a chain reaction in the Middle East, showing that globalisation has promoted Liberalism. Recent developments in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt reflect this profound change in international relations theory reflecting that democratisation of states. Globalisation has promoted democracy which is apparent in these countries opposing the military dictatorship and imposing democracy upon the state. Jeff Haynes highlights an example of democratization influenced by globalisation, the justice and development party in Turkey. Their aim was to promote a liberal market economy and in 2007 was allocated seats. This shows the neo realist foundations of globalisation are appealing to other nation states. Furthermore it shows that are perhaps unhappy with the way their state is authoritarian and want democratic nation. Interdependence has been a key development within international relations theory. During the process of globalisation, the Westphalian system of territorial states has declined whereas interdependence has developed. This interdependence can be viewed in a negative perspective. Realists believe that states should be self-dependent. This inter-dependence is regarded as inequality and some states having power over states. For example, the oil embargo during the 1970s shows that the oil producing countries were able to coerce those countries which imported the oil and used this as a political tool. Decline of hegemony is suggested to produce disorder, as Realists believe a dominant power is needed in international relations. This is apparent in the introduction of the gold standard; the US took the lead in the international exchange of money. Within Cynthia Webbers International relations- a critical introduction the view of neo liberalism and historical materialism is featured which contributes an insight into the globalisation debate. Neo liberalism argues that globalisation influences the development of international relations theory in a positive light whereas the materialists argue capitalism is a bad influence on international relations theory. According to Webber, neo liberalism theory would include a harmonious nature of international relations. They also claim that the economies of the states benefit, and in turn democracy between nation states. However the materialists suggest that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.Ã Ã This exploitation is key into maintaining a capitalist world-system, which highlights the unequal development within international relations theory. They also argue that relationships between sovereign states are conflictual thus suggesting that international relations theory in this case would parallel realism. Ian Clark argues that the globalisation has affected international political economy. The idea of the territorial state is rejected as globalisation has removed barriers which have led to questioning of the concept of a national economy. The viability of the state as provider of security of the state change within the global system has witnessed greater freedom to trade, Non-governmental organisations and interconnected world finance. Globalisation has encouraged interdependence which became apparent in the 2008 financial crisis in which banks had to be bailed out by national governments. This crisis saw a magnitude of countries economies dramatically deteriorate, all because they had some sort of reliance upon each other. This interconnectedness reflects a change in international relations theory. Suddenly a need for a theory in which accommodates for the interconnected states is required which coincidentally highlights the need for outside regulating bodies to manage this change. In conclusion, globalisation is a complex debated issue. Nonetheless, a principal phenomenon present in contemporary international relations theory. Globalisation affects the nature of world order, and has influenced the development of international relations theory by offering a different view on the interconnectedness and how this affects different nation states, for example the spread of liberalism which is reflected in the recent upheavals in the political system in the middle east. These changes in international order highlight the relevance of new and old issues for example the changing politics within the Middle East and the oil crisis in the 1970s. Interdependence is also viewed in a negative way; in which realists believe that less contact with states means less conflict. Different theories offer different perspectives on the international system. International relations are constantly changing so theory needs to adapt in order to explain these changes. The extent to which g lobalisation has influenced the development of international relations theory is much debate. However globalisation seems to demand some new structure and highlights the need for inclusion of the new world order theories in order to explain contemporary international relations. Books.. Governing globalisation- blackwell publishers ltd- Cambridge edited by david held and Anthony mcgrew. 2002 International relations theory- realism, pluralism, globalism and beyond. (3e) Paul r viotti mark v kauppi- Allyn and baco, needham heights 1987 The follies of globalisation theory- Justin Rosenberg verso London 2000
Friday, January 17, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society people face some form or type of dilemma and it could either be a personal, ethical, or moral dilemma. As individualÃ¢â¬â¢s we encounter personal dilemmas, whether it is professional or educational and with these dilemmas there is always some type of choice that must be made and with this choice there is either a solution or resolution or in some cases the choice that is made could either have a positive or negative effect for those involved. Within our society we are faced with ethical dilemmas on a daily basis and they come in the forms of newspapers, television, and by Internet. Some of these dilemmas could be about a Congressman/woman, Senators, Politicians, or Celebrities. For this paper the topic that has been chosen and will be discussed is Same Sex Marriage and the following will also be addressed as well: the nature of the dilemma, the ethical decision made about Same Sex Marriage, alternative course of action and why this action was taken, and th e outcome of the situation. Ethics and Morality So what is ethics and how can it affect me and the choices I make? According to Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy (2012), ethics can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the study of what is considered to be right and wrong, good and evilÃ¢â¬ . For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say that you caught your best friend cheating on his wife. What do you do? Do you confront your best friend and give him the chance to explain what is going on or do you just ignore what you saw and not say anything to either your best friend or to the wife. This is what would be considered an ethical dilemma in which there is a conflict and that some type of choice has to be made. In this type of situation no matter the type of choice you make it could affect your best friend and his wife in a positive or negative way. Morality can be defined by Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s online dictionary as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a system of moral conductÃ¢â¬ leading ultimately to the living of a moralÃ life (Morality n.d.). For example, if an individual is faced with a moral dilemma this means he/she not only makes the decision about the conflict itself, but as a result there could be more than one action or reason why the individual chose that particular action. Basically, the individual has to make a choice, but with this choice there could be more than one solution or resolution and the decision must benefit the greater good of society in a whole. Same Sex Marriage As little girlÃ¢â¬â¢s we had this fantasy of what our ideal wedding would be like and it would be that the man of our dreams would be up there standing at the altar waiting for his soul mate and best friend. This is what most little girlÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of, but the reality of this is the fact that most boys and girls dream about marrying the man or girl of their dreams. The idea of marriage has taken on a whole if not different concept and meaning. When one thinks of marriage it is a union between a man and woman, not a union between a man and a man or a woman and a woman. Most of us may have family members and even friends that are in a same sex relationship. For most of these couples the only thing they are wanting is to not only spend the rest of their lives with their partner, but to have it legal and recognized in the state they live in. On October 14th, 2014 same sex marriage not only became legal in 23 states, including the District of Columbia, but in the first time in our h istory President Obama gave his full support to same sex marriage stating this: Ã¢â¬Å"At a certain point, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve just concluded that for me personally it is important for me to go ahead and affirm that I think same-sex couples should be able to get marriedÃ¢â¬ (ProCon.org). In a decision that was made by the United Stated Supreme Court same sex couples can now be allowed to receive the same benefits as married heterosexual couples would receive. For the rest of the 20 states that have not legalized same sex marriage it would seem that there are certain laws, constitutional amendments or both prevent a same sex couple from getting married in his or her own state (ProCon.org). My Personal Belief and Reasons Why I Support Same Sex Marriage To be completely honest this issue not only hits a raw nerve with me, but I have family and friends that have been in a same sex relationship for years and have expressed to me about getting married. For example, I have a best friend, who is not only like a sister to me, but sheÃ is considered to be part of our family. My friend and her partner live in a state where there is a ban on same sex marriage and she has expressed to me that she would like to marry her partner, but in order for that to happen she must go to another state to get married. We were both brought up and taught by our church that not only is marriage reserved for a man and a woman, but homosexuality is a sin in GodÃ¢â¬â ¢s eyes. When my friend first told me of her plans to marry her partner I expressed my feelings of happiness and excitement. I have never nor will I be judgmental of my best friendÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions or choices when it comes to her life. As a friend I will always be supportive and I will stand with her though thick and thin. My friend and I are both bi-sexual and we are happy with our lifestyle and we do not see anything wrong with the way we live. Many times we have heard that being gay is a sin or that when we die we will not be able to go to Heaven that we are destined for a life of Hell due to our lifestyle. The dilemma in this case is that my friend and her partner do want to get married and in order to do that they must go to Minnesota, Illinois, Nevada, or New York to get married. The problem with this is the marriage will only be recognized in the state they have gotten married in and for some states you must be a resident of six month or longer in order to get married. To be perfectly honest I believe that same sex couples should be allowed to celebrate their union. If heterosexual couples can celebrate their union then why not a same sex couple? Clearly the definition of marriage has changed and people that were not fully supportive or accepting of same sex marriage are supporting the idea of same sex marriage and if same sex couples were to allowed to marry this would give them the opportunity to adopt a child and provide a stable and healthy environment for the child. In New Jersey, since making same sex marriage legal not only has the economy grown, but it has also provided new jobs and brought in additional money and with Massachusetts being the first state to legalized same sex marriage there has been a decrease in the divorce rate (ProCon.org). Reason for Decision and Outcome of the Situation With the situation of my friend and her partner wanting to getting married not only do I fully accept and support the idea of their marriage, but knowing that our government has made changes to the Defense of Marriage ActÃ (DOMA) is a much welcome relief and positive change (ProCon.org). With the support of the President of the United States and the Supreme Court decision that allows same sex couples to receive the same tax breaks and pension rights of married heterosexual couples this is just the beginning (ProCon.org) The next step is to lift the ban or constitutional amendments in the remaining 20 states and allow same sex couples to marry. By allowing same sex couples to marry this in no way will weaken the family values, but will only make the family values stronger and more successfully. Marriage should not be looked at as a privilege or a right, but as a reason to celebrate a union between two people that love each other not matter what their sexual orientation and the famil y unit is now being redefined as well. A family unit does consist of a mother and father, but now the family unit can consist of two mothers and two fathers raising a healthy family in a healthy environment. Conclusion Whether the dilemma you are faced with is personal, ethical or moral one thing we do know is there is always some type of conflict between the action and positive or negative consequence are made for that action or behavior. Dilemmas are personal in nature and one must find the appropriate course of action to help resolve the issue that was at hand. In the case with my friend and her partner the dilemma was simply they both wanted to get married and in order for that to happen they would have to travel to another state in order to get married, but at the same time the marriage would be recognized in the state they were married in and not the state they live in. With this type of dilemma the possibility of my friend receiving any type of benefits from her partner is looking grave and until the state lifts the ban on same sex marriage her and her partner will remain in a domestic partnership. References Braswell, M., McCarthy, B.R., and McCarthy B. (2021). Ethics, Crime, and Justice: An Introductory Note to Students. Science and Technology Morality. (n.d). In Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s online dictionary (11th ed). Retrieved from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/morality ProCon.org (2014, October 14). Gay Marriage ProCon.org. Retrieved from: http://gaymarriage.ProCon.org/
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Spanish gerund Ã¢â¬â the verb form ending in -ando or -iendo Ã¢â¬â is used frequently with forms of estar to form the progressive tenses. However, it can also be used with other verbs, sometimes with meanings that are similar to the progressive tenses. Verbs Often Used With the Gerund Here are some of the most common verbs that can be followed by the gerund: Seguir or Continuar These verbs typically mean to keep on or to continue. With this usage, the two verbs are generally interchangeable with little difference in meaning. Sony sigue hablando mal del plasma, mientras sigue lanzando televisores LCD. (Sony keeps on speaking poorly of plasma while it keeps on releasing LCD televisions.)Venezuela continuarÃ ¡ comprando cemento cubano. (Venezuela will keep on buying Cuban cement.)Muchas veces seguimos durmiendo mÃ ¡s de lo que deberÃ amos. (Many times we continue sleeping longer than we should.)Las cuatro continuaban peleando y un hombre que se movilizaba en una motocicleta aprovechÃ ³ para robarles. (The four kept on fighting and a man on a motorcycle took advantage of the situation to rob them.) Andar Although standing alone andar typically means to walk, when followed by a gerund it means roughly the same as to go around doing something in a rather pointless or unproductive fashion. If youre translating to English, the translation can vary considerably with context. Andar generally has a negative connotation when used this way. DescubrÃ el foro porque andaba navegando en Internet. (I discovered the forum because I was browsing around the Internet.)Katy anda comiendo todo el dÃ a. (Katy goes around eating all day.)TÃ º sabes que todos andamos buscando una vida que satisfaga. (You know that all of us spend our time looking for a satisfying life.) Ir Sometimes, ir is used in the same way as andar, above. But it usually doesnt have the negative connotation. In fact, it usually suggests that the action in progress is proceeding gradually or steadily. Again, translations of ir followed by the Spanish gerund can vary with the context. Vamos estudiando mejor la situaciÃ ³n real del pueblo. (We are coming to study better the real situation of the people.)Fueron comprando trozo a trozo el terreno durante un proceso de unos quince aÃ ±os mÃ ¡s o menos. (They went about buying the land one piece at a time during a process that lasted 15 years more or less.)Los estudiantes van ganando influencia. (The students are steadily gaining influence.) Venir Followed with a gerund, venir often refers to something that has been occurring for a long time and is still continuing. It sometimes conveys frustration that the action isnt complete. As in the first two examples below, it is often used to indicate how long something has been occurring. En los Ã ºltimos aÃ ±os, se viene hablando de liderazgo. (In recent years, much has been spoken about leadership.)Hace seis meses que viene probando suerte como modelo en ParÃ s. (For the past six months she has been trying her luck as a model in Paris.)Vienen diciendome que no soy normal. (They have been telling me that Im not normal.) Following Other Verbs With Gerunds In general, most verbs can be followed by a gerund as a way of indicating how the first verbs action in performed. In effect, the gerund functions much as an adverb. In many cases, sentences using a gerund in this way cant be translated word for word.. A few examples: Empezamos escuchando y terminamos entendiendo todo. (We begin by listening and finish by understanding everything.)De pronto nos encontramos escribiendo una nueva historia. (Suddenly we found ourselves writing a new story.)Antonio miraba estudiando todos mis movimientos. (Antonio watched me, studying all of my movements.)Buscamos en su Instagram unos fotos donde aparezcas sonriendo. (We are searching on your Instagram feed for photos where you appear to be smiling.)Ã Ã ¡Ã ¡Ella perdiÃ ³ 12 kilos bebiendo este jugo milagroso!! (She lost 12 kilograms by drinking this miracle juice!) Key Takeaways The gerund is used most often with estar to form the progressive or continuous tenses.It can also be used with several other verbs, among them seguir and continuar, to convey an idea similar to a progressive tense.In other situations, the gerund can function much like an adverb in modifying or explaining the meaning of another verb.