Saturday, December 7, 2019
Motivational Theories Related Employee
Question: Discuss about the Motivational Theories Related Employee. Answer: Introduction: In this paper, we discuss the different theories which are developed to create workplace motivation in the employees and critically evaluate these theories. In this we also discuss how these theories are applicable at workplace to improve the engagement of employees at workplace. There are large numbers of members who agree that this era demands more efficient and productive employees as compared to other times. It is necessary for businesses to survive that they increase their performance in efficient way. Managers are facing different challenges to make their company successful and put the company ahead from their competitors. The most difficult challenge for manager is to get work done through employees. It is the job of the manager that he gets the things done efficiently through employees. The best way to do this is motivate the employee and get best out of him (Thin, 2011). Employee motivation is the concept which aims to motivate the employees in pursuing his task or goals. It helps the manager to get the things done from employees in effective and efficient way. There is an old saying that owner can take the horse to the water but he cannot force the horse to drink the water, and same thing happen with the people. Nature of human is simple and as well as complex, they do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Motivation increases the engagement of employees in workplace, and helps them in achieving their task. There are number of theories which are used by managers to create and increase motivation in their employees (ACCEL, n.d.; Heathfield, 2016). MARS model is the model which evaluates individual behavior and includes four factors which affect individual behavior that is Motivation, Ability, role and perceptions, and situational factors. Motivation is the internal force which result in changes of individual behavior and make his performance more effective. This process is continuous in nature and this factor sustained due to behavior of individual and factors of organization. Therefore, it is necessary for managers that they ensure that employees in the organization are satisfied and happy which result in effective performance and increasing productivity (Tutorials point, n.d.). Motivation is described in two types of forces that are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is described as that feeling of satisfaction which was achieved when there is needs related to self actualization are fulfilled, and this type of motivation is not related to financial rewards. For example employees of the organization feel motivated when they get appraisal from their employer for good work or get promotion. Employees also feel motivated when their opinion or advices are followed by senior management (Cherry, 2016). Extrinsic motivation includes external factors which are mainly related to financial rewards such as higher pay, fringe benefits, scheme related to profits and any other type of financial benefits. These factors are work well in motivating employees to work well and do desirable behavior in the organization. In this it is clear that financial benefits are the most powerful motivator which can be used by organization because from this source many other desires are fulfilled (Cherry, 2016). Motivation represent those forces which are under the individual and affect the direction of that individual, intensity of that individual, and also persistency of the behavior of that individual. In this direction means a way in which individual engage its effort, and in this individual has completely free choice that where they are putting their effort. They are completely of where they are putting their effort and what they are trying to achieve. This force of motivation not random instead they are goal directed . The next element of motivation is intensity which stated the amount of effort an individual putting to achieve his goal. It is defined as how much an individual pushed himself to achieve that task. For example employer gives similar task to two employees and both are motivated to complete that task few hours before the deadline, but only one employee put enough efforts to accomplish that task before the deadline and achieve his goal. The third and the last force is persistency that is an individual continues his effort to achieve his goal for particular time. In other words whether individual continuous his effort till he achieve his goal or give up before achieving the target. It is important to note motivation is not the actual behavior of an individual but it exists within the individual. Therefore, we can say that above mention forces are the reasons which help us in achieving our goal (E-books, n.d.). Employee engagement is an approach which is considered in workplace and lead to right condition in an organization so that employees can give their best to the organization, and fulfill all their goals in organization and values. This approach mainly focuses on efficiency of employees so that they can contribute in the success of an organization together. Engagement of employees is based on trust, integrity, and commitment of employees for organization and how organization is committed towards employees. These approaches increase the productivity and growth of business and also increase the chances of success (custom insight, n.d. ; Reilly, 2014). Business organizations in which employees are not motivated face number of problems such as low production and high rates of turnover. There are many theories which stated the procedures to motivate the employees, and also give suggestions to increase the motivation at workplace (Zeiger, n.d.). Here we explain these theories and critically evaluate the applicability of these theories. Some of the theories are explained below: Maslow hierarchy of needs theory Abraham Maslow said that motivation is based on the hierarchy of needs of people in which they cannot move to the next level of need without satisfying the previous need. This theory stated that peoples have pyramid hierarchy of needs, and they satisfied these needs from bottom level to top level. The hierarchy of needs defined by Maslow covers the needs which are belonged to the social circle which pursue the talent through self-actualization. Maslow further stated that unfulfilled needs at lower level restrict the employees to move to the next level. The needs in this theory is divided into two categories that is deficiency needs that is physiological and safety and growth needs that is belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization (McLeod, 2016; Your coach, n.d.). Maslow divided the employees need into five categories which started with basic and physical needs and goes towards needs of personal growth and career development. Some of these needs are not expensive and easy to fulfill while some are hard and costly to meet. Needs of employees are not same and they changed according to time and employee to employee. Hierarchy of needs specified by Maslow is Physiological needs such as cafeterias, vending machines and availability of drinking water. Second level is security and safety needs such as wages and salaries, medical benefits, resolve problems, rest periods, working conditions. Third level defines belongings such as encouraging social interactions, team spirits, social activities. Fourth level state self esteem needs and in last there is self-actualization needs (Chand, n.d.). If these needs of employees are not meet at any level of hierarchy then this will affect the professional lives of employees, and this will cause the employees to fulfill their needs on their own level for example finding new job which will provide better opportunities (Learning theories, n.d.). There are some limitations of this theory which are described here such as this theory is very simplified and Maslow develops his theory only on the basis of human needs, and he does not consider the relationship between human behavior and his needs. It is necessary that theory also give emphasis to expectations, experience and perception. Needs of humans are not similar and there are number of employees who are satisfied by fulfilling their physiological needs and security of employment. Therefore, pattern described in this theory is not suitable for all individuals in the organization. This theory is not suitable for the present era because now desires of individuals are not limited and there are number of needs which are not satisfied by following this theory. This theory is accepted by large number of organizations but this theory is untested and contains more philosophical facts than scientific (Net MBA, n.d.; Akrani, 2010). Applicability of this theory at workplace: Chip Conley is the founder of the Joie de Vivre hotel chain and also Head of Hospitality at Airbnb, used Maslow theory to make transformations in his business. Chip stated that number of mangers face problem at the last level of pyramid needs that is self actualization compared to lower level of need. Conley help his employees in understanding the importance of their roles. They conduct an exercise in which question was asked from eight housekeepers that if someone came down from mars and saw you working as housekeepers, then what they will call you. Answers given by housekeepers were quite surprising as they said The Serenity Sisters, The Clutter Busters, and The Peace of Mind Police. These answers show that housekeepers think that they were doing more important than cleaning the room. They were providing security and safety to the guest who are away from their homes and also make them feel comfortable. Through this exercise they realize the importance of their work and their roles in the company, and also understand the value they are adding up in the organization which results in more motivated teams. From the above example it is clear that if employer wants best from his employees then he must help them in other aspects of their life also which are not related to work. There are many ways to support them outside the work such as provide them extra time so which they can spend with their families and pay them fair pay which make them financially stable (Panay, n.d.). Hertzbergs Two-Factor Theory Yhis theory was introduced in 1950 by psychologist Frederick Herzberg, and also known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory. This theory is developed after analyzing the 200 responses from accountants and engineers who were questioned about the positive and negative feeling related to their work. Herzberg found two factors that impact the motivation level of employees and also their satisfaction level. These are the two factors on which Herzberg theory is based that are motivational factor and hygiene factor (Msg, n.d.; Nivens, n.d.). Motivator factor stated those factors which result in satisfied and motivated employees to work harder, and this includes employees are enjoying their work, feeling recognized and progress in their career. These factors are also known as intrinsic motivators which give importance to the emotional needs of the employees instead of tangible needs. These needs are similar from the high level of needs identified by the Maslow in his theory and relatedness and growth categories in ERG theory. Second factor is hygiene factor which include those factors which are very important for employees to work efficiently and if these factors are not present then it will result in dissatisfaction and lack of motivation. For example unfair salary, policies of companies related to employees, and relations of employees with manager and other employees. Hygiene factors are also known as extrinsic motivators, and these factors represent the basic needs of employees which are similar to the needs identified by McClelland's in his ERG Theory that is existence category or in the Maslow theory under lower level of pyramid. This theory stated that both these factors impact the motivation and both these factors work independently from each other. There is one difference between these two factors that is absence of motivation factors does not result in dissatisfaction in employees but absence of hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction in employees (Hezberg, n.d. ; Net MBA, n.d.). There are number of limitations in this theory such as this theory is not appropriate for the managers where low motivation is concerned for the employees of the organization. In this those employees are included who dont have hierarchy of needs. For example employees who are not educated are happy with fulfillment of hygiene needs, and they are not interested in any kind of self actualization. If managers applied the theory on such employees without identifying their needs then this theory can be backfired. Instead of getting motivated these employees would only get overwhelmed by the work, and there is chances that they are not satisfied even manager fulfill their basic needs. Herzberg stated that employees get motivated from money, and money work as the best motivator. Money is a hygiene factor which motivates large number of employees. This motivator helps the employees to work harder but in return they are expected high salary and other monetary gains. This theory is parallel to the theory of Maslow which makes this theory easier to apply in the organization. However, questions marks are put on this theory on the basis of Methodology. This theory is applicable by managers to motivate their employees in the organization by identifying the hygiene and motivation factors, but it is not necessary that every individual accept this method because needs of individual are different (Yew Manap, 2012). Applicability of this theory at workplace: It is necessary for manager that he focuses on both factors that is motivator factor and hygiene factors because both factors are important in their own way. Manger must help their employees in motivating them and also ensure that they are appreciated for their good work and get support from employer. Give feedback to the employees on their work and make them understand their value in the company, and how they can grow through the company. Manger can take many steps which prevent the feeling of job dissatisfaction among their employees by ensure that working conditions at workplace are good and employees get fair pay, and managers are making supportive relations with their teams. Employers must understand that all the employees are different and one motivational factor work on one employee might not work on other employee. Therefore, employers must treat them individually. Managers must identify the issues which cause dissatisfaction among their employees and resolve them by satisfying the hygiene needs of employees (Future of working, 2014; Amoako, 2011). Abovementioned theories are very similar to each other as both re serving the same concept that is motivation of employees and get best out of them by fulfilling the needs of employees. These two theories are very similar but they have some differences also that are Maslow basically focus on human needs and categorize them and ignore the areas of emotions and other feelings whereas Herzberg concentrate on physiological and concrete things which are necessary to produce motivation (Ossa, 2010). Conclusion- In this we discuss the Employee engagement is an approach which is considered in workplace and lead to right condition in an organization so that employees can give their best to the organization, and fulfill all their goals in organization and values. Motivation increases the engagement of employees in workplace, and helps them in achieving their task. In this we also state comparison between the individual behavior with MARS model and also stated the three forces of motivation that is direction, integrity and persistency. Later we discuss two theories to motivate the employees in an organization that is Maslow hierarchy of needs theory which stated that motivation is based on the hierarchy of needs of people in which they cannot move to the next level of need without satisfying the previous need. This theory stated that peoples have pyramid hierarchy of needs, and they satisfied these needs from bottom level to top level and next theory is Hertzbergs Two-Factor Theory and this theory was introduced in 1950 by psychologist Frederick Herzberg, and also known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory. This theory is developed after analyzing the 200 responses from accountants and engineers who were questioned about the positive and negative feeling related to their work. 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